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Student Retention

Project by:
Jane M. Thompson, Solano College
Jenny Falloon, Santa Rosa Junior College
Barbara Simmons, Barstow College

Student Retention

This paper is part of a series of learning modules that can be used by recently hired and current faculty members to improve student retention in their classes.  It focuses on research, principles, and trends in student retention in online and on-campus classes.  Included in the paper is background information on student retention, best practices in California Community Colleges, learning activities, and a substantial list of resources that are available online and elsewhere.  The paper is intended as a resource that can be supplemented by the user as new information on student retention becomes available.  Additional information about student retention will be posted at the following Web sites:


Student retention has been a matter of major concern to faculty and administrators in California community colleges for a number of years.  This concern has resulted in instructors and individual colleges undertaking activities to communicate with students to determine the reasons for dropouts and to attempt to find successful ways to improve student retention.  As an example, about 10 years ago, the Dean of Student Services at one college began a program to assist faculty in determining why students were dropping their classes.   Instructors were encouraged to submit names of students who had been absent so that calls could be made to the students regarding their absences from class.  This program met with limited success partly due to the fact that faculty did not respond to requests to submit to the Dean’s office forms for students who were absent.  Currently the Academic Senate at this college has a plan to encourage faculty to participate in the program. 

Some colleges now require freshmen to take a course that provides them with basic information about campus resources and gives them suggestions about ways to adapt to the college environment (Geraghty, 1999).  Barstow College strongly recommends that all new online students take COMP111—Introduction to online courses (Barbara Simmons, personal conversation, May 23, 2001).  Other colleges give incoming students a lengthy survey that provides school officials with an indication of whether or not they will stay in school (Lords, 2000, May 19).


Added to the need to improve student retention in regular classes, most colleges and universities in this country are recognizing the need to address retention rates in online courses.  These colleges are finding that the traditional approach to teaching (primarily the lecture method) is not effective in delivering online courses and, as the research has indicated, in some cases, has resulted in lower retention rates than in on-campus classes.  Learner-centered approaches that successful instructors are using require frequent communication with students where the instructor becomes a coach and students take charge of their learning.  These same approaches that lead to successful completion rates in online courses can be transferred to the traditional classroom or to hybrid classes that include both "on-campus" classes and online Web access.  The challenge for business and computer educators is to utilize successful methods of classroom instruction in both online and on-campus classes and to adopt those that appear to lead to higher retention rates.

Direction of Project

The purpose of the student retention portion of this project is twofold: (1) to conduct research on successful methods for improving student retention, and (2) to develop exercises and activities for business and computer teachers to use that place the learner at the center of the of the learning experience.  The research will include a review of the current literature and a survey of “best practices” that was sent to all Academic Senate Presidents in California Community Colleges.  The findings of the research and activities are available through the frequently updated Business Education Statewide Advisory Committee Web sites (see Resources section for Web addresses).

Definition of Terms

Hybrid Courses.  These courses offer both online and on-campus attendance.  For example, one might be required to attend class on campus on Tuesday but will work online on Thursday and not go to campus.

Online Courses.  Online courses are those that are taught online and those for which students may or may not receive college or university credit.

On-campus Courses.  On-campus courses require that students attend courses a certain number of days per week.  They may offer Web presence but that is an extra requirement that does not affect regular classroom attendance.

Online Credit Courses.  Online courses are courses that are offered totally online.  Students in these classes may or may not be required to attend an on-campus session at the beginning of the course.

Student-Centered Courses.  This type of class is one in which students are given responsibility for their learning; the teacher plays a role as mentor in the process.

Student Retention.  This term refers to the number of enrolled students who complete the class—on-campus or online.

Student Retention in Online Courses.  This term refers only to online course completion and suggests that the classes may require different methodologies than those used in on-campus classes in addressing student retention.

Student Retention in On-Campus Courses.  This refers only to on-campus courses and the means of addressing student retention on campus.

Traditional Lecture Courses.  Traditional courses are those that are taught in a traditional mode in which the primary methodology is straight lecture with little or no interaction with the students.  It is considered a “teacher-centered” approach.


Student Retention in Community Colleges

In studying student retention, it is clear that in some cases, methods to improve retention may be treated in the same way for online as for on-campus classes.  For example, research has indicated that courses that include a “learner-centered” approach have higher retention rates than those that are based on the traditional lecture approach.  On the other hand, online courses are unique in that their delivery is very different from what most students have previously encountered.  Some students find it difficult to work in this type of non-traditional, less-structured environment.  This paper will address student retention methods for both online and on-campus classes.

One of the major elements of a successful student retention program is for both the instructor and the learner to set goals.  Angelo (1999, May) points out that “Faculty goals tend to focus on what they will teach, rather than what students will learn; student goals often focus on ‘getting through’,” p. 3.  What is needed is for teachers to encourage collaborative learning and a student-centered approach to learning in which instructors [BIC1] call attention to student-set goals.  Angelo suggests the following principles for students in helping to develop skills and knowledge for effective learning.  Students should

  • engage actively—intellectually and emotionally—in their work
  • set and maintain realistically high, personally meaningful expectations and goals
  • provide, receive, and make use of regular, timely, specific feedback
  • become explicitly aware of their values, beliefs, preconceptions, and prior learning, and be willing to unlearn when necessary
  • work in ways that recognize (and stretch) their preferences and levels of development
  • seek and find connections to and real-world applications of what they’re learning
  • understand and value the criteria, standards, and methods by which they are assessed and evaluated
  • work regularly and productively with academic staff
  • work regularly and productively with other students
  • invest as much engaged time and high-quality effort as possible in academic work (Angelo, 1999, May, p. 4).
Online and On-Campus Credit Courses

Online education is still in the early stages of development.  Methodologies and strategies are continually evolving that will result in the most effective ways of delivering online credit courses.   The following section discusses online and on-campus student retention and indicates what some schools have done to address student retention in these courses.

Online vs. On-campus Retention Rates

No national statistics exist that show the number of students who complete distance education programs and courses, but “Anecdotal evidence and studies by individual institutions suggest that course‑ completion and program retention rates are generally lower for distance‑education courses than in their face‑to‑face counterparts” (Carr, 2000, February 11, p. A39).  Many factors could cause this could be true.  Some say that distance education students are busier and, therefore, cannot complete the course, while others say the very nature of online courses cannot support the interaction that is needed by some students (Carr, 2000, February 11, p. A39). 

It is not clear how student retention is measured at different colleges and universities, but it is clear that there is a wide variation in the numbers of students completing online courses.  Some institutions boast 80% completion rates, while others indicate that the percentage for finishing distance education is often 10% to 20% less than for traditional courses.  However, it should be noted that institutions' reporting vary since some colleges do not include students who leave classes during the period in which they are allowed to add and drop (Carr, 2000, February 11, p. 39). 

On-Campus Credit Classes

With on-campus classes, personal relationships are more easily established than with online classes.  Carr (2000, February 11) reports that sometimes students just get lost out there in cyberspace when the attention is not on them.  The ability to see and talk with the instructor in on-campus classes is a definite advantage.  As was indicated earlier, many of the same suggestions outlined in this paper work well for both methods of delivery. 

A retention report by Barstow College Academic Senate reports a continuing institutional and classroom problem, although the figures in the report [BIC2] are in line with statewide averages in various disciplines.  Reasons include academic or personal problems, no legal attendance requirement, and open enrollment.  Faculty added points such as students not taking advantage of instructors’ office hours, scheduling problems, administrations’ dropping low enrollment courses, lack of early orientation, need to look for “at-risk” students, need for institutional research (Personal Communication, Barbara Simmons, 2001, May 23).

Online Credit Classes

Research has indicated that one of the problems with online courses is that the students are new to this type of technology, and, in some cases, may not be computer literate.  Boise State University attempted to solve this problem through the introduction of a “boot camp” for new online students.  The result was a reduction in the dropout rate from about 40% to below 20%.  A unique feature of the boot camp is that it enables students to chat informally before the class begins.  The students get to know one another by sending e‑mail messages, inserting graphics into documents, and solving problems as a group (Carnevale, 2000, February 18, p. A54).  According to Vice President Don Busché of Saddleback College in Mission Viejo, California, his college has a similar successful boot camp.

To make online classes more meaningful in order to deter students from dropping their classes, it is obvious that online classes require constant attention by the instructors.  Carr points to Ramos' involving students in their learning by using the Internet more fully, including chat rooms and more organized use of e‑mail.  This involvement was responsible for the 62% to 90% jump in his course completion rate. (Carr, 2000, February 11, p. A41).  Stout (2000, February 11) concurs with Ramos that the best distance education professors are those that focus attention on the learner as new developments are introduced.  Alfers, on the other hand, reports a success rate of only 50% in his online classes, as opposed to 70% to 75% in his traditional classes (Carr, 2000, February 11, p. A41).  This instructor relates that he tried to e‑mail everyone and set up a phone tree for students, although he states that it is very easy to let the class run itself.  He frankly admits, “You have to constantly remind yourself to make contact, and I know that sometimes I don’t do the best that I can do” (Carr, 2000, February 11, p. A41).   These experiences show that most students must be actively engaged in activities in online courses in order for them to successfully complete the course.

The need for training for those who are planning to teach online courses was addressed by Young (1999, October 22).  He reports that in one Texas college, online courses had only a 40% completion rate; however, after a 40-hour training program in distance education, the completion rate is up 57%, and there has been a decrease in the number of student complaints.  The “Tools for Improved Student Retention Online” document by Fallon that is contained in the Learning Activities section of this paper references several suggestions regarding online courses such as “Tips and Techniques-Before your Class Starts,” “Clear Effective Course Design,” and similar suggestions (Fallon, J., 2001, April).  This learning activity was prepared for this student retention project and was designed to help teachers be successful with online courses.  The printed documents’ part of the Resource section includes the document, “Tips and Tricks for Online Teachers,” by Gillman and Kennedy to help teachers who are just getting started with online courses.

Survey of Online and On-campus Classes

The survey that follows was developed and conducted to determine what colleges are doing to address student retention and to find “effective practices” that can be shared with other colleges to help in their student retention efforts.

Findings of Student Retention Survey Completed by 29 Community Colleges Conducted by Business Education Statewide Advisory Committee Fall, 2001 The Student Retention Survey, developed and administered by the Business Education Statewide Advisory Committee, was conducted in the Fall Semester of 2001. Twenty-nine of the 108 community colleges responded to the survey.Several individuals indicated they had received the survey previously, even though this was the first time it had been sent it to them.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study was two-fold: (1) to attempt to determine to what extent colleges are addressing student retention for both online and on-campus classes and (2) to identify effective practices that could be shared with other colleges.

Research Questions

Respondents were asked to respond to six questions and were given the opportunity to add comments or further explanation. The following questions were asked of respondents:

  1. Is student retention a problem in on-campus and/or online classes at your college?
  2. Do you have a program for improving student retention at your college?
  3. Is your student retention program considered successful?
  4. Are faculty actively involved in assisting in the student retention efforts?
  5. Is your local Academic Senate actively involved with student retention?
  6. Are on-campus and online student retention efforts addressed differently?


Surveys were developed by the Student Retention Sub-committee and approved by the Business Education Advisory Steering Committee. A copy letter sent with the survey is included in Appendix A; the survey is in Appendix B. The surveys were sent to Academic Senate Presidents at all 108 colleges. Telephone calls were made to all colleges that did not respond by the September 14 deadline. It was determined that an Excel Spreadsheet should be used in compiling the data and showing the number of colleges and their reaction to each of the questions.


Returned e-mail messages, telephone calls to the Senate Presidents and returned letters sent by regular mail revealed that the list of Senate Presidents was not accurate. In addition, it was difficult to find the names of the current presidents or another person who would complete the survey. Some presidents opted not to complete the survey but to give it to another person. As a result of the inability to reach the proper person, the deadline was extended from September 15 to October 31.

The data were tabulated in an Excel spreadsheet and averages of the responses were calculated for each item in the question, based on the total number of responding colleges. A graph of these numbers was compiled and a chart indicating the percent of the total participants. These are included in Appendix C. A summary of the “yes” or “no” comments to the open-ended portion of the survey is included in Appendix D. The “other” comments are included as part of the findings of the question.

Response to Question 1

Question 1 asked, “Is student retention a problem in on-campus and/or online classes at your college?” Twenty-three (78%) of respondents indicated that student retention is a problem at their college; four (14%) stated it was not a problem, 2 (7%) checked both “yes” and “no” and 0 (0%) did not respond to the question. Comments regarding “Other” included the following responses:

  • Student retention is a constant concern and is continually monitored. Approximately 50% of incoming freshmen do not return . . . However, for a campus of this type, it seems normal. ·
  • Our attrition rate is not alarming, and we have methods to try and alleviate it. Other comments for those who answered “yes” or “no” are included in Appendix D.

Response to Question 2

Question 2 addressed “Do you have a program for improving student retention at your college?” Again, 23 (79%) of the respondents indicated that they do have programs for student retention; 5 (17%) said they did not have programs to improve retention; 1 (3%) and 0 (0%) did not respond to the question. Comments regarding “Other” included the following responses:

  • “PFE funding is being used for student assistants/tutors across all divisions and special tutoring is offered in both English and Math divisions that target at-risk students.”

Other comments for those who answered “yes” or “no” are included in Appendix C.

Question 3 asked “Is your student retention program considered successful?” Regarding this question, 11 (38%) indicated it was successful, 8 (28%) said it was not successful, 7 (24%), and 3 (10%) did not respond to the question. Comments regarding “Other” included the following responses:

  • Don’t know
  • Insufficient data
  • Not sure
  • Too soon to tell

Other comments for those who answered “yes” or “no” are included in Appendix C.

Question 4 inquired “If faculty were actively involved in assisting in student retention efforts? Twenty-one (72%) indicated that faculty were involved; 4 (14%) indicated they were not involved; 4 (14%), and 0 (0%) did not respond to the question. Comments regarding “Other” included the following responses:

  • Concern exists, but efforts are not specific
  • Program director position is new

Other comments for those who answered “yes” or “no” are included in Appendix C.

Question 5 asked, “Is your local Academic Senate actively involved with student retention?” To this question, 8 (28%) said the Senate was involved; 15 (52%) said they were not involved, and 2 (7%) offered the comments listed below, and 4 (14%) did not respond to the question. Comments regarding “Other” included the following responses:

  • PRE steering committee makes decisions for funding various programs
  • Academic Affairs group is involve in student retention

Other comments for those who answered “yes” or “no” are included in Appendix C.

Question 6 questioned, “Are on-campus and online student retention efforts addressed differently?” Nine (31%) said they were treated differently; 11 (38%) said they were not treated differently; 7 (24%), and 2 (7%) did not respond to the question. Comments regarding “Other” included the following responses:

  • Few, no online classes offered
  • Don’t know
  • No information available

Other comments for those who answered “yes” or “no” are included in Appendix C.

Question 7 inquired if respondents wished to receive the results of the survey. Twenty-four (83%) requested copies of the results of the survey report, 3 (10%) said they did not want the report, 0 (0%), and 2 (7%) did not respond.



It can be seen from the literature and contacts made with individual colleges that student retention is an ongoing concern for community colleges in California.  In the survey conducted by the Business Education Statewide Advisory Committee (BESAC), 23 (79%) of the 29 respondents indicated it was a major concern, while only 4 (14%), and 2 (7%) responded with neither “yes” nor “no”. While 23 (79%) of the respondents indicated they did have a student retention program, only 11 (38%) indicated it was successful. Twenty-one (78%) faculty members indicated that the faculty was involved in student retention efforts but indicated that only 8 (28%) of the local Academic Senates were involved in student retention activities.

While both faculty and administrators make efforts to contact students through student-retention programs, it is clear that pedagogical changes may be more effective in causing students to complete their classes.  Those writing about effective teaching are recommending that instructors move away from a “teacher-centered” approach to a “learner-centered” approach.  The direct result could be an improvement in the number of students completing their courses. Further it can be noted that local Senates should consider efforts to find ways to improve student retention.


1.     It is recommended that a series of activities be developed that will assist instructors in involving students alternative methods of teaching and new ways of involving their students in the learning process.

2.    It is recommended that local Senates work with faculty in improving the retention rates.

3.     It is recommended that the activities on student learning be developed and offered as workshops to business and computer educators across the state.

4.    It is recommended that a follow-up survey be made of individuals to determine if they have or are using learner-directed teaching; and, if so, if this methodology has improved student retention.

5.    Finally, it is recommended that the Business Education Statewide Advisory Committee (BESAC) continue to address student retention by offering classes and/or workshops on topics, such as instructional design, student retention, collaborative learning, etc.

Learning Activities
(New activities will be added as they are discovered.)

Listed below are learning activities designed to assist faculty in retaining students in both on-campus and online credit courses.

Distance Education at a Glance (2000, December).  This excellent resource containing 13 guides that outline contains all aspects for successful online teaching.  Anyone using this outstanding resource is well on the way to designing an outstanding Web page. Web address:

Retaining Online Students: If you build it, they will come…BUT will they come back?  (Permission to link to this site has been granted.) This informative Web site was developed by Ray Schroeder, University of Illinois, Springfield. Web address:

Tools for Improved Student Retention Online.  This interactive Web page was developed by Jenny Falloon as a part of a grant from Santa Rosa Junior College and the Teachers, Not Trainers’ grant. Web address:


Angelo, Thomas A. (1999, May). Doing assessment as if learning matters most, AAHE Bulletin, [Online]. Available:

Carnevale, D. (2000, February 18). Instructors take a turn as students to learn about online teaching. [Online]. Available:

Carr, S. (2000, February 11). As distance education comes of age, the challenge is keeping the students. The Chronicle of Higher Education, XLIV(23), pp. A39-A41.

Geraghty, M. (1999). Data show more students quitting college before sophomore year. The Chronicle of Higher Education.

Lords, E. (2000, May 19). Community colleges turn to consultants to help them recruit and retain students. The Chronicle of Higher Education.

Young, J. R. (1999, October 22). A community college aims to improve retention rates in online courses.  The Chronicle of Higher Education.


Listed below are references to Web sites that address student retention and include suggestions on how this important topic can be improved.

Web Sites

Online Learning News Blog. Ray Schroeder maintains this “best practices” Web site for teachers to find the some of the latest information about online courses in higher education. Web address:

TNT & BESAC Websites



Printable Documents
Tips and Tricks for Online Teachers

Tom Gillman, College of the Desert
Leslie Kennedy, Fullerton College

California Virtual Campus 2nd Annual Conference
CVC 2000: Online Learning & Higher Education
Oct 22-24, 2000 - Lake Tahoe, CA

Before the course starts:

  1. Clearly define minimum hardware and software requirements, and prerequisite Internet skills.
  2. Warn students clearly that online learning is probably harder than campus-based classes - not easier as many of them assume.
  3. Provide an orientation for first-time online students. Include such topics as forum participation and emailing with attachments.
  4. Do not attempt to teach a course online until you have taught that same class in the classroom.
  5. Load as much of the course's content as possible before the semester begins. Stay a minimum of three weeks ahead.
Early in the semester:

  1. Obtain students' email addresses ASAP and establish a deadline for first time login.
  2. Learn who your students are - and create a sense of 'community'. Post a personal introduction or bio of yourself, and encourage students to do the same. Many online teachers even have 'student galleries' - with short bios and/or pictures.
  3. Provide a forum (water cooler, student lounge) for non-course-related postings.
  4. Set up email folders to filter student mail.
  5. Schedule your weeks to go from Wednesday to Wednesday. Protect your weekends!
  6. Be very clear to students about your response time to emails and forum postings. Within 48 hours. Every weekday between 2:00 and 4:00. No weekends and holidays. Etc. Be consistent!
  7. Strongly suggest that students allocate a fixed period of time very day or every week to the class - just like being in the classroom at a particular time. Otherwise the tendency is to procrastinate.
  8. Provide a detailed course rubric explaining what 'quality' you expect, and then grade for that quality.
  9. Give each student two 'permission to hand in late' stickers that they can apply to any two assignments throughout the semester - but no more!
Throughout the semester:

  1. Allocate a maximum of one to two hours per day for quick response items - forum postings and email messages.
  2. Accumulate assignments or papers and set aside one or two periods of time per week in which to grade them.
  3. If you respond to a student with a solution to a problem that he or she may be having, save that email for later - because other students will undoubtedly have the same question. Or post it to your forum.
  4. Keep it simple! Don't concentrate so much on exciting new technology that you lose site of the course content and objectives.
  5. Try peer evaluation of papers and projects.
  6. Early intervention and follow-up.
Forum / Bulletin Board suggestions:

  1. Require postings if you want discussion. Explicit directions on what, where, when...
  2. Establish a pattern and schedule for forum postings. Provide enough time (2 weeks).
  3. Plan to respond personally to each student at some point in time. Choose one posting that is quite good and respond to it in a very encouraging manner.
  4. Try out small groups for discussion (4-7 people).
  5. Resist the temptation to answer 'all' questions. Encourage others to answer them as well.
  6. Summarize discussions.
At the end of the semester:

  1. Send detailed feedback on final assignment.
  2. Clean up email folders and filters, passwords, etc.



Appendix A

Letter sent to 108 California Community Colleges

Solano Community College                                              Telephone: (707) 864-7000, Ext. 375

4000 Suisun Valley Road                                     E-mail: [email protected]

Suisun, CA 94585                                                           Fax: (707) 864-7190                  

August 24, 2001                                                

Dear Academic Senate President:

As part of a statewide grant awarded to the Business Education Statewide Advisory Committee (BESAC), we have determined that there is a need to address student retention for both on-campus and online credit courses in our community colleges.  BESAC is one of the six vocational education subject-matter advisory committees from the Chancellor’s Office that provide leadership and professional development activities for business and computer educators.  The BESAC committee is composed primarily of business/computer education faculty and representatives from business and industry throughout the state.

Since this is a faculty-driven committee, we are inviting you, as President of your Academic Senate, to complete the attached survey on student retention to assist us in finding “Best Practices” in our colleges.  The survey is intended for all student retention efforts, not just business and computer education classes.  We realize you may need to contact the individual at your college who is responsible for retention, and you may wish to give the person the survey to complete.  However, we would greatly appreciate your following up to be sure that the information has been forwarded to us.

For the past several months, the Student Retention Committee of BESAC has been conducting an extensive review of the literature concerning student retention.  We will use this literature review and the findings from the survey to develop the position paper on student retention for on-campus and online courses.  When completed, the position paper will be distributed to all community colleges in California.  Be assured that the responses from the survey will be held in strictest confidence.  Individuals and colleges will be cited only if they wish to be recognized for successful retention practices.

Your help in assisting us with this study will be greatly appreciated.  The deadline for returning the survey is Friday, September 14.   If you have questions, please contact me at the e-mail address listed at the top of this letter. 

If you wish to include other material that explains your student retention program, please send it to me at the above address.  Thank you for your help in this very important project. 


Jane M. Thompson, Ed.D.

Student Retention Chair

Business Education Statewide Advisory Committee

Appendix B


Student Retention Survey for On-campus and Online Courses

Name __________________________     College ___________________________

Address _____________________    City__________________     Zip _________

Preferred e-mail address:  ___________________

Please answer the following questions by checking the appropriate category response:

1.       Is student retention a problem in on-campus and/or online classes at your college?

      _____ yes                _____ no  (please check)

      Please explain:  ______________________________________________________



2.       Do you have a program for improving student retention at your college?

      _____ yes    (please answer question 3)                     _____ no  (please skip to question 4)

      Comment:  ___________________________________________________________



3.       Is your student retention program considered successful? 

      _____ yes                _____ no

      Please explain your answer_______________________________________________



4.       Are faculty actively involved in assisting in the student retention efforts?_____ yes          _____ no

      Comment:  __________________________________________________________


5.   Is your local Academic Senate actively involved with student retention?_____ yes           _____ no

      Comment: ___________________________________________________________



6.       Are on-campus and online student retention efforts addressed differently?_____ yes      _____ no


      Please explain:  ______________________________________________________




7.       Would you like to receive a copy of the position paper on On-campus and online courses that is being developed by the Business Education Statewide Advisory Committee?    _____ yes          _____ no

      Comment:  __________________________________________________________



Please return your survey and suggested resources* to:

Jane M. Thompson

Solano College

4000 Suisun Valley Road

Suisun, CA  94585

You may also e-mail your response to [email protected] 

If you know of information that is available on student retention for on-campus and/or online credit courses on your campus or elsewhere, we would appreciate your sending it to us or telling us where we might locate it.  Your help on this project is greatly appreciated.  If there is another person we should contact, please let us know at the above e-mail address.  Thank you for your help in the project.

Deadline to return survey:     Friday, September 14, 2001


Appendix C

Spreadsheet Indicating Responses to Student Retention 2001.

Compiled responses to the seven questions listed on the Student Retention Survey that was sent in the Fall Semester of 2001 are included on the next page.

Appendix D

Chart Indicating Responses to Student Retention.



 [BIC1]The teachers or the students?


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