What Is Instructional Design & Delivery?
Instructional design is a systematic approach to course development that ensures that specific learning goals are accomplished. It is an iterative process that requires ongoing evaluation and feedback.
Instructional delivery refers to how instructors present instructional material to learners, including instructor methods, approaches and strategies, as well as the media used, traditional or innovative, as a means of delivery.
Research, Principles & Trends.
This interactive white paper serves as a resource for new and replacement community college instructors in the business and computer science disciplines. This paper focuses on the research, principles and trends in instructional design and delivery.
The Web is a wonderful and powerful tool for gathering resources and sharing ideas. The links presented here have been collected from industry specialists and educators like you. It is by no means a complete collection of the wonderful concepts and applications available on the Web. Fortunately, and unfortunately, the Web offers such a vast amount to support material and research examples, daily, and to be able to include every item that addresses our challenges and concerns would be a paper that could never be complete.
However, please think of this paper as “a living document” for you to add to as you grow in your own instructional design, development and delivery strategies and methodologies both on-site in your traditional classrooms and on-line in your virtual environments.
Where Do I Begin?
This interactive white paper is intended to serve as both a resource paper and tool-kit. We recommend that you read the paper the first time, through to its entirety. Then, go back and explore each of the links at your leisure and as appropriate for your instructional needs.
- What are some of the components of your instructional design model that were present here?
- What components discovered at this site will you incorporate in your own instructional design model?
Putting Theory Into Practice. This database contains brief summaries of 50 major theories of learning and instruction. These theories can also be accessed by learning domains and concepts tip.psychology.org/.
- What learning theory do you subscribe to?
Instructional Design Principles
How Does Your Instruction Rate? The 5 star rating scale consists of first principles of instruction derived from a careful analysis of existing instructional design theories and research on instruction www.id2.usu.edu/.
Check out “First Principles of Instruction” www.id2.usu.edu/Papers/5FirstPrinciples.PDF and the 5 star instructional design rating system www.id2.usu.edu/5Star/FiveStarRating.PDF. Another great resource, “Principles of Instructional Design and Adult Learning,” can be found at www.fbe.unsw.edu.au/Learning/instructionaldesign/.
- Does your instruction meet the 5 star design rating?
For more resources by M. David Merrill (author of “First Principles of Instruction” and “Does Your Instruction Meet the 5 Star Design Rating?” go to www.id2.usu.edu/Papers/Contents.html.
To Educate and Entertain. Museum sites have the responsibility to both educate and entertain those who visit. For good or for bad, this is true of news and educational sites. The following Websites are great resources for instructional inspiration and innovation in presenting and delivering information. They are well worth taking time to review.
<![if !supportLists]>1. <![endif]>Find education headlines, interactive resources and more from MSNBC www.msnbc.com/news/learning_Front.asp.
- Find an expansive collection of features, news and resources for teachers, as well as links to schools and universities around the world www.education-world.com/.
- Check out “Creating an Course Syllabus” at ivc-dl2.ivc.cc.ca.us/besac/tnt/assessment.html (Project by: Jill Frank, Asilomar-Instructional Design Group, Group facilitator: Peg Saragina).
<![if !supportLists]>4. <![endif]>Kathy Schrock's Guide for Educators is a categorized list of sites useful for enhancing curriculum and professional growth. It is updated often to include the best sites for teaching and learning school.discovery.com/schrockguide/index.html.
<![if !supportLists]>6. <![endif]>Find free teaching resources from Discovery.com school.discovery.com school.discovery.com/schrockguide/index.html.
- Find more teaching resources from National Geographic www.nationalgeographic.com/education/.
- Find program guides, lesson plans, fact sheets, and nature puzzles from the nonprofit TV network Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) www.pbs.org/.
- Discovery's offshoot, The Learning Channel, invites viewers to expand their minds through television. View profiles of upcoming specials, the schedule, and the FAQ tlc.discovery.com/.
- The Smithsonian Institution is composed of sixteen museums and galleries, the National Zoo, and numerous research facilities in the United States and abroad. Check out the Education & Outreach and The Virtual Smithsonian links www.si.edu/.
<![if !supportLists]>11.<![endif]>The Learning to Learn site is for learners, teachers, and researchers. Learning to Learn is a course, a resource, and a source of knowledge about learning, how it can be developed in children and adults, and how it differs among learners, especially those with learning disabilities snow.utoronto.ca/Learn2/resources.html.
- [email protected] School is a education portal. We highly recommend the Teacher’s Professional Development section school.aol.com/teachers/tch_development.adp. Check out ASCD’s Tutorial section. These short multimedia lessons are on a variety of topics including Standards, Learning Styles, School Safety, Constructivism and much more.school.aol.com/teachers/tch_frame_development_js.html?www.ascd.org/frametutorials.html.
The Web offers a new and innovative platform for designing, developing and delivering courseware; however, it does take planning in order to be successful in the delivery and to ensure student success. A great exploration exercise is to go to www.msn.com or www.yahoo.com (or your favorite search engine) and search for “instructional principles,” “instructional design models,” or “instructional design for on-line learning.” (Use the double quotes so the search engine will search for the entire string of words. If you don’t include the quotes the each word will be search for separately.) Use other search strings as well. Periodically searching the Web for the latest and greatest articles, resources and sites devoted to any topic that interests you is a good habit to have.
New Instructional Design & Delivery Paradigms
Web Communities. The next sites are example of Website communities. These sites could have been used as models for the development of the TNT Website that supports the presentation of this Interactive White Paper. Community sites provide on-line resources, connect people and institutions to learning, harnessing information technology and multimedia, and remove barriers to learning.
The Illinois Online Network (ION) says it well in its Mission Statement:
The primary mission of the Illinois Online Network is to promote the effective use of networked information technologies to enhance traditional classroom instruction, and to build the foundation for developing, delivering, and supporting courses delivered in a completely online format.
<![if !supportLists]>1. <![endif]>The Illinois Online Network (ION) is a collaboration of all forty-eight community colleges and the University of Illinois working together to advance utilization of Internet-based instruction and service throughout the state of Illinois. Check out illinois.online.uillinois.edu/ and especially the resource section illinois.online.uillinois.edu/IONresources/index.html.
- The California Virtual Campus Professional Development Center site is a joint project of El Camino and Santa Monica Colleges and was created under the auspices of the Chancellor's Office for the California Community Colleges. The CVC catalog of distance-education programs and courses continues the work of its predecessor - the California Virtual University Website - in making information available about distance-learning opportunities at California institutions of higher education. The CVC Professional Development Center gratefully acknowledges the assistance of the University of California in establishing the CVC catalog pdc.cvc.edu/training/.
The following item came from this Tips & Trick area of the CVC site:
Have student become one-page experts. You’ve heard of one-minute managers? Have your students become one-page experts. Suggest they pick a topic and have them create a page of information including appropriate links. You may structure a format that is suitable for your specific discipline.
Goals, Motivation & Learner Retention
Thomas A. Angelo wrote an article (AAHE Bulletin, May 1999) where its title expresses the most critical and challenging task of business educators today, that is, “Doing Assessment As If Learning Matters Most” www.aahe.org/bulletin/angelomay99.htm.
Goals. Angelo writes, Building shared motivation: Collectively identify goals worth working toward and problems worth solving. Most of us are more productive when we’re working toward clear, personally meaningful, reasonable goals. While students and faculty members typically have goals, they rarely can articulate what these goals are, rarely know how well these goals match their peers’ goals, and rarely focus on learning. Faculty goals tend to focus on what they will teach, rather than what students will learn; student goals often focus on "getting through."
Goals are not always sufficient to motivate us to learn. As Peter Ewell noted in his December 1997 AAHE Bulletin article "Organizing for Learning," he states, Maximum learning tends to occur when people are confronted with specific, identifiable problems that they want to solve and that are within their capacity to do so.
- At the beginning of a school year, what are your goals for the class?
- Have the goals of the students changed over the years?
Motivation. Learners and instructors have an inherent responsibility to be motivated and offer motivation. As well, the instructional design of any courseware must be motivational. Ask yourself, “What motivates learners?” “What impact does an instructor have on motivation?” “How is motivation affected in virtual ‘e-learning’ settings vs. traditional physical classrooms?”
The “Teaching College College Courses Online vs. Face-to-Face” www.thejournal.com/magazine/vault/A3407.cfm article will give you an idea of the issues and experiences most often encountered by online instructors.
What Motivates Adult Learners? Typical learner motivations include a requirement for competence, degree or certification, an expected or realized promotion, job enrichment, a need to maintain current skills or learn new ones, a need to adapt to job changes, or the need to learn in order to comply with company directives.
To motivate students, especially in learning technical or tedious material, and even dull material, the learner must be given the opportunity to achieve some goal that satisfies two conditions:
- The student must have a real interest in the goal.
- The uninteresting or difficult information must be "intrinsically" related to the goal; in order to achieve the goal, one sometimes must use this uninteresting/challenging information.
What Do Adult Learners Bring to the Learning Environment? Instructors must acknowledge the wealth of experiences that adult learners bring to the classroom (traditional or virtual). These adults should be treated as equals in experience and knowledge and allowed to voice their opinions freely (respectfully) in class. Adults bring varying qualities and quantities of the following characteristics to both traditional and virtual classroom settings:
- Practical knowledge oriented
- Need for Feedback
Adults have accumulated a foundation of life experiences and knowledge that may include previous education, work-related activities, family responsibilities, community support, and sport and recreation ventures. Learners need to connect continued education to their knowledge base and experience base. As well, through life experiences, adults possess analytical skills to derive inferences such as: "What old problem is this new problem like?"
What Do Adults Hope to Achieve from Learning? Learners tend to have precisely defined achievement expectations before taking a course. Factors that influence expectations in adult learning include:
- Cognitive interest in the subject or learning for learning sake
- Personal advancement as a result of learning
- Work-related learning experiences
- Social or community learning experiences
- Social relationships - meeting people with the same interests
- Need for change or stimulation
What Do Learners Expect from E-Learning? This is where expectations vary tremendously. For the purposes of this paper we have defined three modalities - or platforms - of learning. These are instructor-led traditional classroom, instructor-led virtual classroom (synchronous e-learning) and self-paced Web-based (asynchronous e-learning). Blended learning is where the best of each modality is mixed and matched to create the most interactive, engaging, and most motivational learning experience.
If you ask a group of students, “What is the definition of e-learning?” your answers are likely to be as varied and unique as the people you are asking. As a result, learners have as many varied expectations as to what e-learning looks like, what its educational delivery capabilities are, or what learners should expect from it.
How Do Instructors Motivate E-Learners? In traditional classrooms, students generally find out what is expected of them on the first day of class. In virtual classrooms, motivating learners begins before a class ever begins. Before a course starts, each instructor should set clear expectations for what is required from the learner. Post to the learners (in a resource center or discussion board) what they are expected to learn from taking this course. Alsol, explain what tools will be used for interaction with the instructor and other learners. Define for the learner, or have learners create, guidelines to following when interacting. This “sets a tone” for all communication and collaboration efforts. Finally, but even more importantly, ask learners what their goals are for taking this course and how they relate to their future professional and/or personal goals. Learner goals can be best realized by allowing students to choose projects that reflect their own interests.
Instructor-led Live Learning. Live virtual classrooms come with the interface facilities and tools such as video for the learner to see the instructor, voice-over IP for communication to instructor and all learners, whiteboards, shared applications, Web connectivity, break-out rooms for collaboration, public and private chat, test facilities and impromptu surveys. Instructors motivate students with a serendipitous mix of these tools and by asking yes/no questions and open-ended questions throughout the course. Students can ask questions during lectures and activities during class by raising their virtual hands or ask outside class-time via e-mail.
Self-paced Web-based Learning. A few of the strategies that greatly influenced learner success in self-paced formats include:
- Define Learner & Instructor Expectations. Courses that open prior to their official start date, allowing learners to study the syllabus. Instructor expectations are then known right from the start. Learners can be invited to state their own goals and expectations for taking the course.
- Access to a Course Orientation. If available learners should be encouraged to complete a sample course tutorial. Materials can be published on how learners should post to the course-rooms. A first unit can end with a simple, “Do you have any questions so far?” breaking the ice for a number of learners new to the virtual classroom.
- Self-Paced with a “Push.” Although the course is self-paced, the instructors can “gently” move learners along with e-mails of encouragement, keeping learners on schedule.
- Instructor Feedback. Instructor feedback to learner discussion board posts that is both encouraging and insightful, and always timely.
- Learner & Instructor Interactions. The rules of interaction should be established in the beginning of the course. This set the tone as to how learners would interact with one another and with the instructors.
Collectively, the techniques implemented in both live virtual learning and self-paced Web-based learning enable a highly interactive educational setting.
- Now it is your turn. Discuss your motivational strategy with respect to keeping yourself motivated, keeping your students motivated, and your instructional design strategies for creating innovative and motivational courseware. What works for you?
Are Learners Retaining What They Have Learned? Teacher-centered instructional methods repeatedly have been found inferior to instruction that involves active learning, in which students solve problems, answer questions, formulate questions of their own, discuss, explain, debate, or brainstorm during class, and cooperative learning, in which students work in teams on problems and projects under conditions that assure both positive interdependence and individual accountability. This conclusion applies whether the assessment measure is short-term mastery, long-term retention, or depth of understanding of course material, acquisition of critical thinking or creative problem-solving skills, formation of positive attitudes toward the subject being taught, or level of confidence in knowledge or skills.
Active learners tend to retain and understand information best by doing something active with it, for example, discussing or applying it, or explaining it to others. Active participation by a learner is unique because people become involved physically, intellectually, and emotionally. Multiple levels of involvement result in significantly higher effectiveness and retention. For links to other web sites related to active and cooperative learning click on www2.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/Cooperative_Learning.html#Websites.
Assessment Development & Accountability
Doing Assessment As If Learning Matters Most. Thomas A. Angelo in “Doing Assessment As If Learning Matters Most” states, To achieve transformation in higher learning, we must develop shared trust, a transformative vision of goals worth working toward, and shared language and concepts equal to the challenge. If we plan and conduct our assessment projects at every step as if learning matters most — and not just student learning, but ours as well — then the distance between means and ends will be reduced and our chances of success increased.
If learning really matters most, then our assessment practices should help students develop the skills, dispositions, and knowledge needed to:
- Engage actively — intellectually and emotionally — in their academic work.
- Set and maintain realistically high, personally meaningful expectations and goals.
- Provide, receive, and make use of regular, timely, specific feedback.
- Become explicitly aware of their values, beliefs, preconceptions, and prior learning, and be willing to unlearn when necessary.
- Work in ways that recognize (and stretch) their present learning styles or preferences and levels of development.
- Seek and find connections to and real-world applications of what they’re learning.
- Understand and value the criteria, standards, and methods by which they are assessed and evaluated.
- Work regularly and productively with academic staff.
- Work regularly and productively with other students.
- Invest as much engaged time and high-quality effort as possible in academic work.
Take the time to think about what you believe with respect to how people learn.
- Is there anything missing in the 10 points as stated by Angelo?
Angelo’s complete article is at www.aahe.org/bulletin/angelomay99.htm. A great resource for your library is, Angelo, T.A. & Cross, K.P. Classroom Assessment Techniques: A Handbook for College Teachers, 2nd Ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1993. Have a look at the following assessment resources:
<![if !supportLists]>2. <![endif]>Have a look at “The Value of Effective Student Assessment” at ivc-dl2.ivc.cc.ca.us/besac/tnt/assessment.html (Project by: Jill Frank, Asilomar-Assessment Group, Group Facilitator: Joyce Arntson).
Instructional Design Trends
In the old world: The learning experience was confined within the walls of the classroom or training department. The teacher alone possessed and dispensed information, so responsibility for effectively conveying knowledge and teaching skills fell solely on the instructor, while accountability for educating employees rested on the learning institution.
In the new world: Companies orient learning toward employees' unique needs. Instead of taking the learner to the classroom, e-learning allows the classroom to come to the learner. This allows customized teaching that is geared to the needs and schedule of the students and increases their accountability.
Active Learning Model
In the old world: Corporate training was typically separated from day-to-day business processes. Employees left the workplace to receive training, and they acquired information in surroundings far removed from the work environment where it would be used.
In the new world: Companies are striving to integrate corporate training with day-to-day business operations and to provide a work environment that supports active learning.
Continuous Learning Model
In the old world: Employee training and refresher courses were offered only occasionally. Opportunities for updating employees' knowledge and skills were limited to group sessions at designated times and places.
In the new world: Because skills and training become obsolete much more quickly than in the past, companies are pushed to retool and learn more rapidly. Accordingly, a movement toward a continuous learning model is taking place.
It would be a challenge to accurately state the precise evolution of these three models; however, a few concepts are embedded in each of them:
- The models meet the goals of learners
<![if !supportLists]>3. <![endif]>The models prepare learners for changing job opportunities
- The models allow for real-world or work-based learning
Lifelong Learning. Universities, like the Stanford Business School Alumni Association, are dedicated to enhancing their alumni's professional development and continuing education. They develop Lifelong Learning pages as a resource to stay up on management issues, faculty research, visiting speakers to the school, upcoming academic programs, and suggested reading from both faculty and fellow alumni www.gsb.stanford.edu/alumni/lifelonglearning/.
Students and employees are now playing a major role in defining their career paths. They are also more responsible for completing the appropriate training to support and enhance their immediate job needs and overall careers. By using the Internet to provide knowledge and facilitate skill building, institutions and companies empower their students and employees to advance their learning at their own pace and convenience. Learners can choose the courses they need and tailor the courses to their particular careers and schedules. Further, e-learning's flexibility allows employees to choose the tools and methods that are most effective for them—whether that means streaming media, task simulation, threaded discussion groups, or other approaches.
Instructional Delivery Principles
Instructor-led training is predicted to comprise 70-80% of teaching delivery. Many students prefer the human interaction and "real-time" class participation that ILT offers. However, WBT provides a simpler way to transfer learning, especially to a global work force. WBT provides a quick and efficient way for training transference. Product and strategy information can be relayed to a sales force, including new hires while minimizing the amount of time a salesperson invests - no travel time and costs, flexibility in delivery training whenever someone wants it. Roger C. Schank, Director of the Institute for the Learning Sciences (ILS), Northwestern University.
The goal of the instructional designers is to design, develop and deliver interactive, engaging and motivational learning courseware. Instructional designers must continue to seek, discover, explore, and test the limits of traditional classroom and Web-based tools and techniques, as well as tools and technologies yet to be developed. The following titles are wonderful resources to have in your library.
<![if !supportLists]>1. <![endif]>The Handbook for College Teaching – instructional delivery, and instructional evaluation can be found at www.americantech.net/teachered/hfct.cfm. The handbook is designed for individuals with limited teaching experience at the postsecondary level. It demonstrates how knowledge of subject matter alone does not make an effective instructor. Effective instructors couple that knowledge with an understanding of the principles of learning that relate to instructional planning, instructional delivery, and instructional evaluation. This book is ideal for community college instructors, graduate school instructors, and teaching assistants.
<![if !supportLists]>2. <![endif]>These (and more) are available at www.amazon.com.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>The ASTD Handbook of Training Design and Delivery: A Comprehensive Guide to Creating and Delivering Training Programs-Instructor-Led, Computer-Based, or Self-Directed by George M. Piskurich (Editor), et. al.
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Multimedia-Based Instructional Design: Computer-Based Training, Web-Based Training, and Distance Learning by William W. Lee, Diana L. Owens
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Designing Web-Based Training: How to Teach Anyone Anything Anywhere Anytime by William K. Horton
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Rapid Instructional Design: Learning ID Fast and Right by George M. Piskurich
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Instructional-Design Theories and Models: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory by Charles Reigeluth
<![if !supportLists]>· <![endif]>Envisioning Information by Edward R. Tufte
Instructional Delivery Trends
The concept of Blended Learning has taken the stage in training organizations and learning institutions. Blended learning takes the best of:
<![if !supportLists]>1. <![endif]>Instructor-led Learning or Training (ILT)
<![if !supportLists]>2. <![endif]>Distance Learning
<![if !supportLists]>3. <![endif]>Internet-based Live Learning
<![if !supportLists]>4. <![endif]>Self-paced Web-based Learning
<![if !supportLists]>5. <![endif]>Just-in-Time (JIT) Learning, delivering learning in modules or “chunks”
In ASTD’s August 2001 article “Why Blended Will Win” Jack Zenger and Curt Uehlein present their unique take on traditional instructor-led training and new technology-delivered training to explain that not only can those two approaches co-exist, but also that their co-existence is necessary for us to move onto something "better than we've imagined." Instructor-led training blended with e-learning allows instructors to completely integrate instructional design methodologies, employ consistent framework and nomenclature, deliver learning in its best platform, and maximize flexibility and variety in the learning offering. A blended learning strategy provides learners and workers with around-the-clock access to learning tools, and since business now moves at Internet speed, the shelf life of employee training is shorter than ever.
- Are you using any blended approaches in your teaching today?
- What is working? What is not?
These links focus on the variety of teaching technologies available today. Think about what’s next . . .
- Check out ASTD’s “The State of the E-Nation” at www.astd.org/CMS/templates/index.html?template_id=1&articleid=27046 and “An Instructor’s Guide to Live E-Learning” www.learningcircuits.org/2001/jul2001/duckworth.html and find an E-Learning Glossary at www.learningcircuits.org/glossary.html.
- Read the Executive Summary of Brandon Hall’s “E-Learning Goes Global: Taking Learning to Every Corner of the World” http://www.brandon-hall.net/intl-es/.
- Tidewater Community College at onlinelearning.tc.cc.va.us/ provides tips for interactive online learning onlinelearning.tc.cc.va.us/resource/conftips.htm.
- Get the answers to why and how to create and facilitate on-line learning communities. leahi.kcc.hawaii.edu/org/tcc_conf97/pres/bauman.html and lrs.ed.uiuc.edu/Guidelines/MLF-Paper.html.
<![if !supportLists]>6. <![endif]>This collection of distance education and mediated instruction development resources is intended for Indiana higher education staff, faculty, and administrators and others with professional interests in distance learning www.ind.net/learntech/distance_ed/index.html.
<![if !supportLists]>7. <![endif]>A guide for preparing learners for distance learning can be found at www.ideas.uces.csulb.edu/guidebook/preparing.html.
<![if !supportLists]>8. <![endif]>Penn State Continuing and Distance Educations gives guiding principles and practices for the design and development of effective and innovative distance education www.cde.psu.edu/DE/IDE/GP&P/GP&P.html.
Stay on the Journey.
Keep Asking Where are We Going and Why?
As we move into the 21st century business educators, probably more than any other curricula area will see profound changes. In order to keep pace with the rapid change and serve the students who depend on you and the direction you provide, it will be necessary to ask that question so aptly put by Ruth Stiehl, “What do my students need to be able to do ‘out there’ (in the rest of life) that we are responsible for in this classroom?” If you keep asking that question and listening to the answers, you will be well on your way to providing the best in instructional design and delivery!
Technique, methodology, the process you’ll need to follow…this will come to you. Just make sure your aim is good, open yourself to the unexpected and proceed. You don’t have to know how you’re going to get there, but you must know where you want to go. Price Pritchett, The Quantum Leap Strategy.
The Internet is enhancing the instructor-led classroom design and delivery model. Agile and innovative educational institutions and companies are deploying e-learning where it makes the most sense, while continuing to use the traditional classroom model when it complements the e-learning approach or better suits the learning or training material.
Higher education and business leaders with their eye on the future recognize that the next generation to enter the workforce will have different learning styles than those of previous generations. The workers of tomorrow tote laptops to school and work, view their schedules on handheld computers, and have carried portable video games in their pockets since preadolescence. This generation often exhibits little patience for traditional teaching methods.
In The Practice of Innovation, Peter M. Senge remarks on how Peter Drucker has elegantly presented the three ingredients of the discipline of innovation: focus on mission, define significant results, and do rigorous assessment, and asks “But if it sounds so simple, why is it so difficult for institutions to innovate?” www.pfdf.org/leaderbooks/L2L/summer98/senge.html.
One of the great benefits of the Internet is the ability to take advantage of the facilities for delivering technologies including computer animation and hypermedia, streaming media – both audio and video, live broadcast video, videoconferencing, simulation and virtual reality, virtual whiteboards and shared applications across the Web, and email and instant messaging between learners.
Multicasting and software such as Flash and Java, in combination with these technologies, are now being used to produce rich, interactive, and compelling new environments for learning. These new environments are revolutionizing how learning is delivered, and they enable educational institutions and businesses to encourage active, ongoing, lifelong learning within their organizations.
Before You Go.
Please feel free to provide us any feedback on this interactive white paper. Your input is appreciated!
For questions and comments regarding this interactive white paper, please contact: Joyce Arntson:
The following Websites have been referenced in this paper, and in the order as they appear here:
Instructional Design Models
This database contains brief summaries of 50 major theories of learning and instruction. These theories can also be accessed by learning domains and concepts tip.psychology.org/.
Principles of Instruction, Instructional Design & Adult Learning
The 5 Star Rating Scale consists of First Principles of Instruction derived from a careful analysis of existing instructional design theories and research on instruction www.id2.usu.edu/. Check out “First Principles of Instruction” www.id2.usu.edu/Papers/5FirstPrinciples.PDF and the 5 star instructional design rating system www.id2.usu.edu/5Star/FiveStarRating.PDF. Another great resource, “Principles of Instructional Design and Adult Learning” can be found at www.fbe.unsw.edu.au/Learning/instructionaldesign/.
For more resources by M. David Merrill, author of “First Principles of Instruction” and “Does Your Instruction Meet the 5 Star Design Rating?” go to www.id2.usu.edu/Papers/Contents.html.
Find education headlines, interactive resources and more from MSNBC www.msnbc.com/news/learning_Front.asp.
Find an expansive collection of features, news and resources for teachers, as well as links to schools and universities around the world www.education-world.com/.
Teaching Tools & Resources
Check out “Creating an Course Syllabus” at ivc-dl2.ivc.cc.ca.us/besac/tnt/assessment.html (Project by: Jill Frank, Asilomar-Instructional Design Group, Group facilitator: Peg Saragina).
Kathy Schrock's Guide for Educators is a categorized list of sites useful for enhancing curriculum and professional growth. It is updated often to include the best sites for teaching and learning school.discovery.com/schrockguide/index.html.
Find free teaching resources from Discovery.com school.discovery.com school.discovery.com/schrockguide/index.html.
Find more teaching resources from National Geographic www.nationalgeographic.com/education/.
Find program guides, lesson plans, fact sheets and nature puzzles from the nonprofit TV network Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) www.pbs.org/.
Discovery's off-shoot, The Learning Channel, invites viewers to expand their minds through television. View profiles of upcoming specials, the schedule, and the FAQ tlc.discovery.com/.
The Smithsonian Institution is composed of sixteen museums and galleries and the National Zoo and numerous research facilities in the United States and abroad. Check out the Education & Outreach and The Virtual Smithsonian links www.si.edu/.
The Learning to Learn site is for learners, teachers, and researchers. Learning to Learn is a course, a resource, and a source of knowledge about learning, how it can be developed in children and adults, and how it differs among learners, especially those with learning disabilities snow.utoronto.ca/Learn2/resources.html.
[email protected] School is a education portal. We highly recommend the Teacher’s Professional Development section school.aol.com/teachers/tch_development.adp. Check out ASCD’s Tutorial section. These short multimedia lessons on a variety of topics including Standards, Learning Styles, School Safety, Constructivism and much more school.aol.com/teachers/tch_frame_development_js.html?www.ascd.org/frametutorials.html.
Search for at www.msn.com or www.yahoo.com.
Learning Communities - Model Sites
The Illinois Online Network (ION) is a collaboration of all forty-eight community colleges and the University of Illinois working together to advance utilization of Internet-based instruction and service throughout the state of Illinois. Check out illinois.online.uillinois.edu/ and especially the resource section illinois.online.uillinois.edu/IONresources/index.html.
The California Virtual Campus Professional Development Center site is at pdc.cvc.edu/training/.
Face-to-Face vs. On-Line Teaching
The “Teaching College College Courses Online vs. Face-to-Face” www.thejournal.com/magazine/vault/A3407.cfm article will give you an idea of the issues and experiences most often encountered by online instructors.
For links to other web sites related to active and cooperative learning click on www2.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/Cooperative_Learning.html#Websites.
Assessment & Accountability
Thomas A. Angelo’s “Doing Assessment As If Learning Matters Most” www.aahe.org/bulletin/angelomay99.htm.
Have a look at “The Value of Effective Student Assessment” at ivc-dl2.ivc.cc.ca.us/besac/tnt/assessment.html (Project by: Jill Frank, Asilomar-Assessment Group, Group Facilitator: Joyce Arntson).
Stanford Business School Alumni Association is dedicated to enhancing their alumni's professional development, continuing education and lifelong learning goals www.gsb.stanford.edu/alumni/lifelonglearning/.
The Handbook for College Teaching – instructional delivery, and instructional evaluation can be found at www.americantech.net/teachered/hfct.cfm.
Books, books, books and more www.amazon.com.
Check out ASTD’s “The State of the E-Nation” at www.astd.org/CMS/templates/index.html?template_id=1&articleid=27046 and “An Instructor’s Guide to Live E-Learning” www.learningcircuits.org/2001/jul2001/duckworth.html and find an E-Learning Glossary at www.learningcircuits.org/glossary.html.
Read the Executive Summary of Brandon Hall’s “E-Learning Goes Global: Taking Learning to Every Corner of the World” http://www.brandon-hall.net/intl-es/.
Learning Communities Guidelines
Tidewater Community College at onlinelearning.tc.cc.va.us/ provides tips for interactive online learning. Check it out at onlinelearning.tc.cc.va.us/resource/conftips.htm.
Get the answers to why and how to create and facilitate on-line learning communities. leahi.kcc.hawaii.edu/org/tcc_conf97/pres/bauman.html and lrs.ed.uiuc.edu/Guidelines/MLF-Paper.html.
On-line Technology Tutorials
This collection of distance education and mediated instruction development resources is intended for Indiana higher education staff, faculty, and administrators and others with professional interests in distance learning www.ind.net/learntech/distance_ed/index.html.
A guide for preparing learners for distance learning can be found at www.ideas.uces.csulb.edu/guidebook/preparing.html.
Penn State Continuing and Distance Educations gives guiding principles and practices for the design and development of effective and innovative distance education. www.cde.psu.edu/DE/IDE/GP&P/GP&P.html.
The Practice of Innovation, by Peter M. Senge, can be found at www.pfdf.org/leaderbooks/L2L/summer98/senge.html.
TNT & BESAC Websites
Award Winning On-line Course Sites
Astronomy, Scott Hildreth, Chabot College
astro.clpccd.cc.ca.us/ - follow links to Astro10 Online – ID & PW, both = faculty
Biology 20 course, Barbara Zingg instructional designer Scott Vigallon www.courseserve.com/etudes.cgi?request,logframe!cs_id,95864888!
id = cvc, password = contest
California Virtual Campus Online Teaching Site Awards – Fall 2000.
Music Fundamentals and Introduction to Music Courses, Dave and Don Megill,
18.104.22.168/etudes/openhouse/openhouse.html – follow links – ID & PW, both = faculty for faculty view, or student for student view
Physical Anthropology, Dennis O’Neil, Palomar College
anthro.palomar.edu/anthro100/default.htm – no ID or PW needed
Web Publishing course, Jodi Reed, Cuyamaca CC
cis2.cuyamaca.net/jreed/ – no ID or PW needed
ASTD is a leading association of workplace learning and performance professionals, forming a world-class community of practice. ASTD's 70,000 members come from more than 100 countries and 15,000 organizations.
The Resource Centers of Blackboard.com allow you to access thousands of full-text journal articles, augment your course with robust educational content from hundreds of publishers, and review discipline specific news, articles, and tutorials. There is an Academic Resource Center, Instructor Center, Student Center, Blackboard Communities, Training Center and a Course Content Center.
Brandon Hall: www.brandon-hall.com
Brandon Hall provides independent, objective information about using technology for learning to help you make the right decisions for an organization. they keep one well-informed on trends, best practices, tools, and vendors.
Centra Software, Inc.: www.centra.com
Centra created of Centra One, an Internet-based platform for delivering live instructor-led learning or virtual events.
Cisco System, Inc.: www.cisco.com<![if !supportNestedAnchors]><![endif]>
Education is the great equalizer in life. In order to properly prepare our children for the jobs of the 21st Century, we need fundamental changes in our education system. Government leaders, teachers, parents, and businesses need to embrace accountability and competition in our schools if we are ever going to improve the current situation. John Chambers, CEO & President, Cisco Systems, Inc. Check out Cisco’s commitment to education and education in the Internet economy. www.cisco.com/warp/public/779/edu/commitment/edu_internet_economy/
Also explore Cisco E-Learning www.cisco.com/warp/public/10/wwtraining/elearning/
Generation 21: www.gen21.com
Creators of the Total Knowledge Management (TKM) system, a Learning Content Management System (LCMS).
The Masie Center: www.masie.com
The world of Learning is dramatically changing in 2001. We are tracking significant increases in learning that is targeted at customers and the "supply chain" as well as employee development. In fact, The MASIE Center believes that in three to four years, there will as much customer and supplier e-Learning offered as employee oriented programs. In addition, the economy is presenting both challenges and opportunities to organizations developing Learning Strategies. Elliott Masie, The MASIE Center & TechLearn Conferences.
Question Mark Perception: www.questionmark.com/perception/
Question Mark is the creator of a off-the-shelf or Web-based assessment tool called Perception.
The Training Place: www.trainingplace.com
The Training Place focuses on motivating learners and improving performance.
The Training Place offers customized content, learning and content management technology, consulting services, hosting, and learning orientations research to deliver personalized e-learning solutions.
On-Line Learning Magazines
Web Community Example
There are many websites, books, articles, and seminars loaded with information about assessment. A good place to start is the American Association of Higher Education Assessment Forum (AAHE) www.aahe.org/assessment/<![if !supportNestedAnchors]><![endif]>. This AAHE Assessment Forum is considered the primary national organization that connects and supports higher education assessment. At this site there are literally hundreds of links to articles, books and websites all carefully categorized.
At the National Business Education Association (NBEA) site you will find the National Standards for Business Education based on a comprehensive model that includes 12 content areas. These 12 standards areas include many of the subjects included in the discipline of business education. These include accounting, business law, career development, communications, computation, economics and personal finance, entrepreneurship, information systems, international business, interrelationships of business functions, management, and marketing www.nbea.org/curfbes.html<![if !supportNestedAnchors]><![endif]>.
The California Business Education Association (CBEA) represents professionals involved in education for and about business at all levels of public and private institutions. Try out their links and resources www.cbeaonline.org/<![if !supportNestedAnchors]><![endif]>.
The US Department of Education, a comprehensive education resource covers access, grants, programs and teaching materials. Check headlines, studies and research findings. www.ed.gov/.
@ONE has developed a series of pedagogy-based training packages and online tutorials for your campus to adapt or use as-is. Topics include: Collaborative Learning Using Online Tools, Using Simulations to Enhance Teaching and Learning, Internet Research Strategies to Support Instruction. @ONE training packages can be accessed at one.fhda.edu/services/services.htm. Each training package comes complete with a Trainer's Guide, Participant’s Guide and support material such as an instructional Website template, PowerPoint presentation, etc. to help trainers facilitate live delivery. Tutorials, on the other hand, are designed to be accessed online, for faculty use in a self-paced format.
Locate books, CDs, online courses and tutorials to help you build your technology skills at @ONE’s Training Center one.fhda.edu/training/training.htm. Check out the Instructional Design tutorial called "Designing Technology-Enhanced Instruction."
The @ONE project is offering one-day, hands-on training sessions on instructional applications of technology, open to California Community College faculty throughout the state. These workshops are being taught by community college faculty who have been leaders in using technology for teaching. For information on prerequisites, content, logistics, or to register, go to the @ONE Website one.fhda.edu/services/services.htm.
The repository of links to original technology training materials in the CCC Trainers’ Network has grown to 39 entries in the last weeks with contributions of technology training materials from De Anza College. The newly added materials include: Intro to Word 97/98, Intro to Excel 97/98, Charting in Excel, Intro to PowerPoint 97/98, Advanced PowerPoint 97/98, Troubleshooting Power Macs & Windows NT, modules on Word Page Layout/Mail Merge/Using Templates/Drawing Toolbar.
CCC trainers can download, adapt and use any of these materials to train their local faculty and staff. They are also invited to add a link to a successful lesson plan, training guide, tutorial, etc., that they have developed.
To participate in the exchange, CCC trainers, instructional designers, staff developers, etc. must be designated by their college leadership via a Memo of Understanding, which protects intellectual property rights. To see a list of colleges already involved, look under "How Do I Join?" For more details, go to one.fhda.edu/tn2/about.htm and
if you have further questions, email the CCCTN Coordinator .
A number of books on instructional technology, pedagogy and technical skills hit bookstores in the year 2000 and 2001. Many of these have been added to the list of books in @ONE's Community Resources. Each book listing includes a short description of content and a link for more info or to purchase through Amazon. Purchases trigger a small percentage to the CCC @ONE project. In this area, also, are links to a number of online journals of interest to educators. To browse these resources, go to
@ONE maintains a searchable database of online TECHNOLOGY TOOLS & TEACHING STRATEGIES resources, available to all staff and faculty at your college. Go to the @ONE Training Center one.fhda.edu/training/training.htm.
Technology trainers, instructional designers and those who train or assist faculty and staff to integrate technology into instruction and services, are invited to join the "TRAINERS' LISTSERV." Contact Karla Frizler Octavio, @ONE Instructional Designer, for the details contact .
Instructional Design Sites
Multimedia & Web-based Training/Learning Sites
On-line Periodicals Related to Multimedia & Web-based Training/Learning
Digital Video: www.dv.com
Interactive Week: www.zdnet.com/intweek
New Media: www.newmedia.com
Web Techniques: www.webtechniques.com
Internet Week: www.internetwk.com
Training Magazine: www.trainingsupersite.com/tss_link/trainset.htm
Training Supersite: www.trainingsupersite.com
Books to Augment Your Learning
Abbey, B. (2000). Instructional and Cognitive Impacts of Web-Based Education. Hershey, PA: Idea Group Publishing.
Aggarwal, A. (2000). Learning and Teaching Technologies: Opportunities and Challenges. Hershey, PA: Idea Group Publishing.
Alessi, S.M. & Trollip S.R. (2001). Multimedia for Learning, Methods and Development. 3rd ed. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon Publishers.
Allen, D. W. & Cosby, W.H., Jr. (2000). American Schools: The $100 Billion Challenge. New York, NY: iPublish.com.
Caine, R, N. & Caine, G.(1997). Unleashing the Power of Perceptual Change: The Potential of Brain-Based Teaching. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Dede, C. (Ed.) (1998). ASCD Yearbook: Learning with Technology. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Horton, W. (2000). Designing Web-Based Training - How to Teach Anyone Anything Anywhere Anytime. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Jensen, E. (1998). Teaching with the Brain in Mind. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Lee, W.W. & Owens, D.L. (2000). Multimedia-Based Instructional Design. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publisher.
Kirkpartick, D.L. (1998). Evaluating Training Programs. 2nd ed. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
Palloff, R.M. & Pratt, K. (1999). Building Learning Communities. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publisher.
Tiwana, A. (2000). The Knowledge Management Toolkit - Practical Techniques for Building a Knowledge Management System. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall PTR.
Worthen, B.R., White, K.R., Fan, X., & Sudweeks, R.R. (1999). Measurement and Assessment in Schools. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Longman Publishers.